Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired


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Below are strategies for all content areas.

Cards with names of different scents on them

Ten Scents of Christmas Sensory Cards

By Charlotte Cushman
This multi-sensory game uses the Ten Scents of Christmas in a matching game, which can be adapted for children who are blind or visually impaired.
Photo of advent calendar with braille numerals

25 Days of Christmas Advent Calendar

By Charlotte Cushman
This activity uses a braille advent calendar to identify numerals in braille or print while counting down to Christmas.
stuffed animal in a small basket


By wpatrone
This activity uses real objects to work on positional concepts with children who are blind or visually impaired.
Photo: Student at table working on his braillewriter

Motivating Older Adolescents Who Are Emerging Readers

By Megan Mogan
This strategy from a speech therapist is designed to help teachers find appropriate literacy instruction for students who have significant multiple disabilities in addition to their visual impairment.
Photo of tactile advent calendar

Tactile Advent Calendar

By Charlotte Cushman
Tactile advent calendar uses objects
Still from video of Robbie Blaha and student

Book Conversation with Robbie Blaha

By Charlotte Cushman
This video shows Robbie Blaha, Teacher of the Deafblind at Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, having a conversation using a braille book with a student who is deafblind.
Child manipulated squishy bag on lightbox

Squishy Bag - A tactile / multi-sensory approach to pre-writing and writing skills

By Charlotte Cushman
This multi-sensory tactile activity encourages children to develop handskills, including hand and finger strength, finger isolation, and squeezing.
Using and iPad in the dark

Using the iPad and magnetic letters to compose and share stories

By Charlotte Cushman
Promote literacy with the story kit app and magnetic letters
Photo of child's hands manipulating playdoh

Finger-strength and pincer grip activities: getting ready for writing braille

By Charlotte Cushman
Cover of touch book of textures

Make Your Own Touch Book!

By Charlotte Cushman
Learn how to make a touch book to promote tactile skills with children who are blind or visually impaired, deafblind or who have multiple disabilities
THERM in black letters on a white background with a thermometer attached to it

Greek and Latin Roots

By wpatrone
Students can build their vocabularies and decoding skills by learning Greek and Latin roots. Tips for students who are blind or visually impaired
Photo of picture book with sponge and rubber duck as part of story box

Beginning Story Box: Little Rabbit's Bedtime

By kimberlyd415
Page of language experience story about watering the plant

Experience Book About Planting Seeds

By kimberlyd415
Cover of Henry Jack

Henry Jack Tactile Book

By Charlotte Cushman
Colored stars on black background

Beginning Books for Children with CVI

By Beth Allen
Create books for children with cortical visual impairment (CVI) using simple materials with limited complexity.

Tactile quilts that tell a story

By Rocky@Perkins
Image of tactile calendar

Individualized Adapted Calendars

By Charlotte Cushman
Ideas for setting up individual calendars for students with visual impairments and additional disabilities
Addition problem using tactile counting aids

Counting in Tactile Journals

By Rocky@Perkins
Create tactile books or journals to work on counting and other early learning concepts with young children who are blind or visually impaired.
Cover of tactile journal

Tactile Journals

By Rocky@Perkins

All About Me!

By Charlotte Cushman
Create an "All About Me" book using objects, textures, tactile symbols, print and braille for children with visual impairments & multiple disabities