Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

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Ensuring High-Quality Instruction for Students in Braille Literacy Programs

By Charlotte Cushman
Study of appropriate levels of instructional service to address the needs of students with visual impairments in 12 areas of braille literacy skills.
A girl reads a braille book.

Access to Literacy Instruction for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

By Charlotte Cushman
This 61-page discussion paper examines the importance of literacy for all students who are blind or visually impaired.
A girl reads a braille book.

Braille Literacy Skills: An Analysis of the Concept of Spelling

By Charlotte Cushman
Analysis of braille spelling errors, including types of spelling errors, students' attitudes toward spelling, relationship between spelling & reading
A girl reads a braille book.

The ABC Braille Study: Results and Implications for Teachers

By Charlotte Cushman
The ABC Braille Study found that many elementary-aged braille readers fail to achieve grade level expectations in reading vocabulary & comprehension.

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