Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

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Below are posts related to research.



Young child touches tactile book with adult guidance.

Expanding Understanding of Emergent Literacy: Empirical Support for a New Framework


By Charlotte Cushman
Elementary school age boy reads a braille book

The Effect of Consistent Structured Reading Instruction on High and Low Literacy Achievement in Young Children Who Are Blind


By Charlotte Cushman
Cover of Report of the National Early Literacy Panel

Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel


By Charlotte Cushman
Teenage girl with handheld magnifier looks at cell phone

Literacy for Students with Low Vision: A Framework for Delivering Instruction


By Charlotte Cushman
Two sets of hands reading braille books side by side

Could Specific Braille Reading Difficulties Result from Developmental Dyslexia?


By Charlotte Cushman
Two boys look at a book of picture symbols together.

A Survey on Literacy Instruction for Students with Multiple Disabilities


By Charlotte Cushman
Young child touches tactile book with adult guidance.

Tactile and Object Exploration Among Young Children with Visual Impairments


By Charlotte Cushman
Girl with braids reads braille page while her teacher looks on.

Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories


By Charlotte Cushman

Standards-based Instructional Strategies for English Language Learners with Disabilities


By Charlotte Cushman

Multiculturalism and Students with Visual Impairments in New South Wales, Australia


By Charlotte Cushman

Knowledge of Basic Concepts of Young Students with Visual Impairments Who Are Monolingual or Bilingual


By Charlotte Cushman
Boy with glasses writes using a Braille Note.

Learning and Using Print and Braille: A Study of Dual-Media Learners, Part 2


By Charlotte Cushman
Boy with glasses writes on a Braille Note.

Learning and Using Print and Braille: A Study of Dual-Media Learners, Part 1


By Charlotte Cushman
Boy with glasses writes on a Braille Note.

Research Study: Early Braille Education Vital


By Charlotte Cushman

The Use of Learning Media Assessments with Students Who Are Deaf-Blind


By Charlotte Cushman

Unique Considerations for Assessing the Learning Media of Students Who Are Deaf-Blind


By Charlotte Cushman
ABCD and pile of books

Teaching children to read


By Charlotte Cushman
Photo of group of smiling adults.

Literacy Information and Communication System (LINC) Publications


By Charlotte Cushman

Doing What Works


By Charlotte Cushman
A girl reads a braille book.

Literacy for Students Who are Blind: A Framework for Delivery of Instruction


By Charlotte Cushman

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