Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

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Below are posts related to research.



Knowledge of Basic Concepts of Young Students with Visual Impairments Who Are Monolingual or Bilingual

By Charlotte Cushman
Research article on the knowledge of basic concepts of young students with visual impairments who are monolingual or bilingual
Boy with glasses writes on a Braille Note.

Learning and Using Print and Braille: A Study of Dual-Media Learners

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study on dual media learners (i.e. children who were learning or using print and braille simultaneously)
Boy with glasses writes on a Braille Note.

Research Study: Early Braille Education Vital

By Charlotte Cushman
Research on the importance of early instruction for braille users

The Use of Learning Media Assessments with Students Who Are Deaf-Blind

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study on the use of Learning Media Assessments with students who are deafblind, (i.e. those who have a combined vision and hearing loss, or a dual sensory loss)

Unique Considerations for Assessing the Learning Media of Students Who Are Deaf-Blind

By Charlotte Cushman
Research article on considerations for the use of a Learning Media Assessment (LMA) with students who are deafblind
ABCD and pile of books

Teaching Children to Read

By Charlotte Cushman
Findings and determinations of the National Reading Panel on the research literature on teaching reading and the implications for instruction (not specific to visual impairment)
A girl reads a braille book.

Literacy for Students Who are Blind: A Framework for Delivery of Instruction

By Charlotte Cushman
Research study to explore the appropriate levels of instructional services to address the needs of students in braille literacy programs.

Forty Years of Literacy Research in Blindness and Visual Impairment

By Charlotte Cushman
This article outlines concerns about the quality of research currently being done in the field of literacy research in blindness and visual impairment

Ensuring High-Quality Instruction for Students in Braille Literacy Programs

By Charlotte Cushman
Study of appropriate levels of instructional service to address the needs of students with visual impairments in 12 areas of braille literacy skills.
A girl reads a braille book.

Access to Literacy Instruction for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

By Charlotte Cushman
This 61-page discussion paper examines the importance of literacy for all students who are blind or visually impaired.
A girl reads a braille book.

Braille Literacy Skills: An Analysis of the Concept of Spelling

By Charlotte Cushman
Analysis of braille spelling errors, including types of spelling errors, students' attitudes toward spelling, relationship between spelling & reading
A girl reads a braille book.

The ABC Braille Study: Results and Implications for Teachers

By Charlotte Cushman
The ABC Braille Study found that many elementary-aged braille readers fail to achieve grade level expectations in reading vocabulary & comprehension.

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