Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

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Below are posts related to research.



Image of Mountbatten braillewriter

Technology and Early Braille Literacy: Using the Mountbatten Pro Brailler in Primary-grade Classrooms


By Charlotte Cushman
A teacher speaks to a boy wearing glasses

Blind Children's Representations of Complex Scenes in a Narrative


By Charlotte Cushman
Teenage girl with fingers on computer keyboard

Assessing Writing Software Tools for People with Vision Impairment, Learning Disability, and/or Low Literacy


By Charlotte Cushman
Logo of Signs of Literacy Project

Signs of Literacy Project: Gallaudet University


By Charlotte Cushman
A young child looks at a book with the letter D and a picture of a duck.

Research-to-Practice: Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL)


By Charlotte Cushman
Girl with glasses uses an adapted keyboard and computer

Toward Positive Literacy Outcomes for Students with Significant Developmental Disabilities


By Charlotte Cushman
A boy with glasses draws on a piece of paper.

A Survey on Literacy Instruction for Students with Multiple Disabilities


By Charlotte Cushman
A young boy watches attentively as adult signs to him.

The Role of the TVI in Literacy Instruction for Students who are Deafblind


By Charlotte Cushman
Two boys look at a book of picture symbols together.

The NCDB Outcomes and Performance Indicators: Literacy


By Charlotte Cushman
A teenage boy uses a Braille Note.

Instruction of Keyboarding Skills: A Whole Language Approach to Teaching Functional Literacy Skills to Students who are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities


By Charlotte Cushman
A boy wearing headphones looks at a computer keyboard.

Word Reading and Processing of the Identity and Order of Letters by Children with Low Vision and Sighted Children


By Charlotte Cushman
A girl uses a handheld magnifier to read a bus schedule.

Reading by Children with Low Vision


By Charlotte Cushman

Low Vision Meta-Analysis


By Charlotte Cushman
Girl uses an adapted keyboard to access a computer

Low Vision Affects the Reading Process Quantitatively But Not Qualitatively


By Charlotte Cushman
Boy uses handheld magnifier to read a line of print.

Literacy Skills of Children with Low Vision


By Charlotte Cushman
A boy with glasses looks at a line of print with his teacher.

Literacy and Australians with Low Vision


By Charlotte Cushman
Two boys read braille books together.

Social Experiences of Beginning Braille Readers in Literacy Activities: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study


By Charlotte Cushman
A young girl looks at a book with her parents.

Literacy in Early Intervention for Children with Visual Impairments: Insights from Individual Cases


By Charlotte Cushman
A boy uses a Braille Note at his desk.

Implications of the National Early Literacy Panel for Early Braille Literacy


By Charlotte Cushman
Young boy with glasses looks at a picture book

Framework for Developing Evidence-Based Early Literacy Learning Practices


By Charlotte Cushman

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