Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

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Orientation and Mobility

A boy stands at a bus stop.
Posted by Joseph Harrison
Parents and Orientation and Mobility Specialists know that safe and efficient travel with the long white cane is “all about technique.” Awful technique equals awful protection and effective technique equals effective protection. How do we motivate...



Object symbols with braille of grocery items
Posted by Liamsmom
I am the mother of two sweet boys.  My oldest, Liam, is 7 years old and is deafblind.  His first language is American Sign Language.   My youngest, Finn, is 4 years old and has typical vision and hearing.  Going to the grocery store...



Cloth book with textures
Posted by Holly Cooper
Leer en Español.     People often wonder what to get as a gift for a child who has a visual impairment.  Every child is unique and has their own interests, preferences, and abilities, so any advice must be considered with the...



Close-up view of tactile caliper
Posted by Chris Tabb
Where are we? How do you begin to know where you are? Before we can begin to tell someone where we are, we have to first have perceived where we are. The process of perceiving where we are has many components; many of these components are...



Shoppers in a mall
Posted by JennieO
What can you do with your students who are visually impaired in the middle of winter in the state of Maine (or anywhere else)? Mountain biking? I don’t think so! High cliff diving? Not a chance! Cross country skiing? Well yes, that of course, but...



traffic intersection with tactual models
Posted by Chris Tabb
The American Heritage Dictionary has two definitions for “literacy”. The first is, “The condition or quality of being literate, especially the ability to read and write.” The second definition is a bit more global, “The...



O&M apps
Posted by Linda Mamer
There are many apps (applications) available to support the development of Orientation and Mobility skills for children and youth who are blind or visually impaired, as well as those who are deafblind.  I compiled a list of some of my favorites in...



Two boys look through monoculars outdoors.
Posted by cyralm
By Cyral Miller, Director of Outreach, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired    Have you ever wondered whether your child’s program is meeting educational standards related to his or her visual impairment?  How...



Collage of Vision Apps
Posted by Linda Mamer
There are many applications (apps) available to assist teachers of students with visual impairments and other vision professionals in their work.  I have collected some of my favorite apps in the following categories: Apps for Vision Information...



Young boy using an iPad
Posted by Tara Mason
I had the pleasure of learning all about one parent’s journey with her four and a half year old son and his iPad. She enthusiastically agreed to be interviewed for a Paths to Literacy Blog post.   It is a great opportunity to learn about iPad use...



tactile maps on foam boards
Posted by Laurie Hudson
Skills in reading/writing tactile images, or “tactile-graphicity,” develop with lots and lots of carefully sequenced, guided exposure to thoughtfully designed and well-made tactile images.  It takes time, strategy, and a steady hand to...



Collage for selecting iPad apps
Posted by Linda Mamer
  Making decisions about which applications (apps) for iPads are the most suitable for specific students involves a number of different steps.  This article looks at: Considerations for iPad App Selection How to Choose an...



Collage featuring several ipad applications
Posted by Tara Mason
It is with great pleasure that I post my first article to the Paths of Literacy Blog. I have been studying iPads and teacher professional development for the past two years for my Ph.D. research study. For my study, I have created learning resources around...



collage of girl with cane
Posted by Laurie Hudson
Literacy happens throughout Orientation & Mobility curricula: maintaining personal notes of walking routes and personal O&M journals, reading public transportation routes and schedules, menus and maps, processing Global Positioning System output,...



Pointing to New Zealand
Posted by Laurie Hudson
  Describing Clearly Adapted from Classroom Collaboration, page 59 By Laurel J. Hudson, Ph.D. Published by Perkins School for the Blind, 1997     Sighted people typically communicate key information by pointing, drawing, demonstrating...



Job chart
Posted by Laurie Hudson
Introduction: Early elementary school classrooms typically post Job Charts.  These are lists of classroom responsibilities that students rotate through weekly.  Common jobs include “Plant Waterer,” “Line Leader,” “Door...



Shared reading of braille texts
Posted by Megan Mogan
By Megan Mogan, Speech-Language Pathologist What is "Adapted Adapted Literacy"? Over the years, you may have noticed a shift in the population of students you serve as TVIs, Speech Therapists, Orientation and Mobility Specialists, etc. ...