Paths to Literacy

for students who are blind or visually impaired

Blog Posts

Below are recently created blog posts.



A boy with glasses holds his hands over his ears
By Peg Palmer
Recently I had yet another conversation with a distraught parent from another state, who was upset that her child who has cortical visual impairment (CVI) was not being included in the story/circle time at preschool. “He doesn’t need to see the...



Board game with goose pieces and dice
By PennyR
Think back on your own childhood and time with family and friends and you’re likely to remember a game you enjoyed playing whether it was a board game, word game, or sporting activity.  Games can help your child develop skills such as:...



Worksheet with yellow highlighting
By Brenda Biernat
With the help of TVI Matt Tietjen*, we have compiled a list of considerations when writing an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for a student who has cortical visual impairment (CVI). IEPs look different from state to state, but contain the same...



Two boys wearing Halloween costumes standing next to pumpkins on a bench
By Liamsmom
My son Liam (8 years old, deafblind) doesn't watch TV. Because of this, he isn't always aware of movies and their characters that are popular among his peers.  He does know a few super heroes because we happen to have the toys around the house...



Heba and her TVI
By Renee Ellis
I was recently asked to add a challenging student to my caseload. What started out as one of the most difficult teaching situations of my career, turned out to be one of the most fun and rewarding I have ever had.  While every student has unique needs...



Young girl uses a switch while looking at the computer
By Jbrown
Write accurate information It is critical that when you are writing about the student’s medical condition(s) that you are accurate and reliable.  Refrain from copying from last year’s report or IEP.  Errors could be in the previous...



Braille tracking sheet
By elsierao
Struggling braille readers may easily become frustrated or discouraged, so it's critical to find ways to ensure success whenever possible.  Here are some strategies to promote tactile skills with struggling braille readers: Implement a...



Preschool student with her arms out wide
By Jodi Floyd
Systematic building of skills in toddlers and pre-schoolers will facilitate learning to read and write braille in the future! Skills to build include: concepts such as same and different, tactual awareness and perception, and fine motor such as exploring...



A child scoops the seeds out of a pumpkin
By Megan Mogan
Around 4 pm every day, something wonderful happens to me.  I get to reunite with my 3 children after school/work and find out how their days went.  I get to hear about spelling tests, lunchbox trades, science experiments, and playground drama....



Boy with iPad
By Ellen Cadigan Mazel
What Do iPads Support for Children in Phase III? As discussed many, many times, the strategies for CVI must match the assessment results using the CVI Range (Roman-Lantzy 2007). We can never just randomly apply a strategy because it will not fit the...



A young boy fishes with his TVI.
By Liamsmom
I was 5 months pregnant when my 2 and a half-year-old son Liam (who had typical vision and hearing) was airlifted to a city 5 hours away. He had become severely sick from meningitis.  After months away from home, due to complications from the meningitis...



By Daniela Gissara
This article is designed to help educators to plan strategies and accommodations to improve visual access to the environment for students with Low Vision.  Please note that this is an excerpt from a longer article on Low Vision.   Download the full...



Child doing Downward Dog Pose
By maloneyk
There has been a lot of talk about yoga lately. Many people tout the benefits of yoga, including improved energy levels, cardiovascular health, and increased flexibility. While the general public has seen dramatic results from incorporating yoga into their...



Hand reading braille
By David Pruitt
When people think dyslexia, they think vision problems.  Dyslexics see letters and numbers backwards if they can read at all.  That’s the common thought, but only one aspect of dyslexia.  Dyslexia is a reading disorder, not a seeing...



A second grade girl using a colored marker
By PennyR
Parents often wonder if their child who has a significant visual impairment should learn braille, print, or both literacy media at the same time.  They also question what role audio materials (e.g., books on CDs or downloaded to a special device) should...



Homework from a distance
By Laurie Hudson
When families and general educators are asked if their students can see something, their responses are often, “Sure!”  But  what does this mean?  In order to get a thorough, accurate sense of what students with low vision are seeing...



A young girl uses a Braille Port Plus from APH.
By Jodi Floyd
"A wise old owl sat in an oak. The more he [listened], the less he spoke; The less he spoke, the more he heard. Why aren't we like that wise old bird." --Bromley   Although listening skills are not designed to replace...



A boy stands at a bus stop.
By Joseph Harrison
Parents and Orientation and Mobility Specialists know that safe and efficient travel with the long white cane is “all about technique.” Awful technique equals awful protection and effective technique equals effective protection. How do we motivate...



A girl places Easter eggs on a grass tray.
By Liz Eagan
Event planning is a great way to incorporate literacy and the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) into student-led activities!  While this particular example was done at Easter, there are many opportunities throughout the year to practice reading, writing...



A worksheet with words and images
By Brenda Biernat
Novelty. Complexity of array. Sensory complexity. Preferred color. These are some of the characteristics of cortical visual impairment. More importantly, these are descriptors for my son’s vision. Such words have become a second language. At times it...



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